To resolve the initial group of research concerns concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode level information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing sex that is same behavior and containing speak about sex associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions by using these nominal information. When it comes to 2nd collection of research questions, we used just those demonstrates that contained nonheterosexual sexual content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( e.g., range periods per hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cell size or equal variance, to determine significant distinctions across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs inside our examples included any sexual content (behavior or talk) linked to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) towards the 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining Table 1 shows the portion of reveals that contained any exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by program genres, by form of community, and by pregnant women fucking time of day aired. For community kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major companies ABC, CBS, and NBC in addition to Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable film (including Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). With regards to period of day broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. were categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Portion of Episodes with Same Sex Sexual actions and talk that is sexual to Nonheterosexuals
Note: Within form of system and period of day aired, percentages into the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). Generally in most instances, there was clearly a top amount of communication between a genre’s general positioning for exact exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual speak about nonheterosexual sexual dilemmas. Furthermore, genres’ standings on both these factors had been fairly stable throughout the two tv periods.
Three genres had been regularly reduced in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk regarding nonheterosexuals in either 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to possess the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component movie. Created for television films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ also had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual intimate content; but, both these groups included just only a few programs (letter = 7), rendering it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres when you look at the tables, we don’t emphasize the findings related to them.
System kind evaluations
Across community types, we found comparable patterns generally speaking in nonheterosexual content that is sexual the 2 tv periods, with regularly reduced percentages of programs on commercial broadcast sites containing same intercourse sexual behavior and intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals and also the greatest percentages of programs with both kinds of content on premium cable movie companies. The common wide range of periods containing sex that is same behavior had been 3.7 in 12 months 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This huge difference, but, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Likewise a t test of this 331 episodes from 12 months 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the distinction within the regularity of these content between your two tv seasons (4.2 periods in 12 months 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) had not been significant (p = .18).
Level of exact Same Intercourse Sexual Behavior and Talk linked to Nonhetrosexuals each hour of system Time
Note: Within sort of community and time of day aired, means into the same line that don’t share subscripts differ at p 1 For simplicity of presentation, we utilize the term вЂњnonheterosexualвЂќ to refer collectively to all or any people whose intimate orientation is certainly not solely heterosexual, including homosexual men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either sex.
2 one other behavior that is sexual ended up being utilized to recapture all the kinds of intimate tasks that would not fall under the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual activity implied, and sexual activity depicted including low degree intimate functions such as for example leering to advanced level intimate functions such as for example masturbation and bondage and control.
3 Because our system test had been gathered between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for example Jerry Springer, that may deal more often with intimate themes are not included simply because they had been broadcast early in the day. The 12 talk programs inside our test included those broadcast when you look at the afternoon and night such as for example Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, one other Half, and BET Tonight in addition to governmental talk programs (e.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show).
4 Because our examples consist of programs from both broadcast that is commercial cable companies, we utilized a typical product wide range of 2 moment periods each hour of program time instead of amount of 2 moment periods per an hour show to evaluate the regularity of intimate behavior and discuss sex linked to nonheterosexuals. This makes up about the undeniable fact that commercials reduce the amount substantially of system content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas one hour cable programs typically have actually about 30 two moment intervals.
Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist during the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor when you look at the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at Ca State University, Fullerton.